How Much Debt Should A Small Business Have?

In the tapestry of business finance, debt threads through many a small company’s fabric, providing the necessary tension to keep the weave tight and the pattern of growth intact. However, finding the right tension is key—too much can strain and break the fabric, while too little might fail to define the business’s potential. For small business owners, managing debt is not just a matter of number crunching; it’s a delicate art. So, how much debt should a small business have?

The answer is not one-size-fits-all, but rather, it depends on a myriad of factors including industry, cash flow, the stage of business, and the economic climate. While there is no universal debt-to-income ratio or leverage metric to target, there are guiding principles that can help entrepreneurs navigate the murky waters of business debt.

1. Understand The Debt’s Purpose And Payoff

Debt is a tool, and like any tool, its value is determined by its use. Taking on debt for clear, strategic purposes—such as expanding operations, purchasing equipment, or bridging a temporary cash-flow gap—can be a smart move for a small business. The potential payoff should justify the risk and cost of the debt. The alignment of the debt’s terms with its purpose is crucial. Long-term debt should be used for long-term investments, while short-term needs are best addressed with short-term borrowing.

Moreover, consider professional help. For example, knowing what to look for at Tax Law Advocates or similar advisory services can help you understand how debt can impact their tax obligations. Strategically structuring debt with tax implications in mind can help maximize cash flows and minimize tax burdens.

2. Measure Debt Against EBIT

A practical measure to determine an appropriate level of debt is to look at the business’s earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT). A healthy business should have an EBIT that can comfortably cover its interest payments, ideally several times over. 

This is known as the interest coverage ratio. A ratio of 1 means you can just pay the interest, which is risky. Aim for an interest coverage ratio of 2 or more to ensure a comfortable buffer.

3. Evaluate Industry Standards

Different industries operate with different levels of typical leverage. A manufacturing company, for example, may have more debt than a service-based business due to the need for equipment and facilities. It’s crucial to compare your business’s debt level with industry benchmarks. This information can often be found through industry associations, trade publications, or financial data services.

4. Assess The Cost Of Debt Versus Opportunity Cost

When considering taking on debt, evaluate the cost of the debt against the opportunity cost of not taking the debt. If the interest rate on the debt is lower than the return you expect to generate from using the funds, then taking on the debt might make sense. Conversely, if the cost of debt is high and the potential returns are uncertain or slim, it might be prudent to avoid borrowing.

5. Keep An Eye On Cash Flow

Debt requires regular payments, which can strain cash flow. Ensuring that your business generates enough cash to meet its debt obligations is vital. Project your business’s cash flow into the future and stress-test these projections against potential downturns in revenue. Always have a cash reserve or backup plan to cover debt payments in case of unforeseen circumstances.

6. Understand The Debt’s Impact On Business Flexibility

Debt can limit a business’s operational flexibility. If too much of your cash flow is tied up in debt repayment, you might not be able to take advantage of new opportunities or weather downturns. Before taking on additional debt, consider the impact on your business’s agility.

7. Monitor The Debt To Equity Ratio

The debt to equity ratio is a common metric that compares a company’s total liabilities to its shareholder equity. It’s a measure of the degree to which a company is financing its operations through debt versus wholly owned funds. While a high debt to equity ratio can indicate a risky level of leverage, some debt can actually be beneficial by allowing for growth without diluting ownership.


For small business owners, debt is not a villain. Instead, it is a potential ally—with conditions. The judicious use of debt can catalyze growth, but it requires careful management and a clear-eyed assessment of the business’s ability to handle and repay it. Each business must strike its own balance, taking into account its specific circumstances, industry norms, and growth aspirations. The ultimate goal is not to avoid debt entirely, but to leverage it in a way that maximizes the business’s potential while maintaining a prudent level of risk. 

Remember, like any aspect of business, managing debt is not a set-it-and-forget-it task. It requires ongoing attention and adjustment as conditions change. With a strategic approach to debt management, small businesses can weave a financial fabric that is both resilient and ripe for success.

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